Scenic Area Development and Management Company of Huangshan Tourism Development Co., Ltd.
As a world cultural and natural heritage, Mount Huangshan claims Global Geopark, National Scenic Spot, National Civilized Scenery Tourist Area and National AAAAA Level Tourist Attraction. Along with the Yangtze River, the Great Wall, and the Yellow River, Mount Huangshan represents an outstanding representative of magnificent mountains and rivers and splendid culture in China. Known as Wonderland on Earth and The First Strange Mountain in the World, it is famous for its Five Unique Scenery including strange pines, stones, sea of clouds, and hot springs.
Characterized with exquisite peaks and unusual looking rocks, here are 88 peaks over 1000 meters, and three main peaks Lotus, Guangming Peak and Tiandu, all over 1,800 meters above sea level. Xu Xiake, the famous traveler of Ming dynasty, came to Mount Huangshan twice “There is no mountain as extraordinary as Mount Huangshan in Huizhou around the country, and there is no desire for climbing other mountains after a visit to Mount Huangshan. How curious it is!”, he exclaimed. Later generations thus summarized as visits to the five mountains shall not count, and the return of Mount Huangshan will not yearn for another.
Mount Huangshan with a stable and balanced ecosystem, complete and vertical distribution of plant communities, an alpine marsh and alpine meadow, is a gathering place of green plants, which is known as the East China Plant Treasure House and Natural Botanical Garden. The forest coverage here is 84.7%, and vegetation coverage reaches 93.0%, with 1805 species of higher plants belonging to 827 genera and 222 families. There are some rare plants such as Pinus taiwanensis, Rhododendron anhweiense, Magnolia parviflora, manglietia fordiana, Taxus chinensis and Tsuga tchekiangensis Flous. Twenty-eight species of plants were first found in Mount Huangshan or named after it.
Mount Huangshan is an ideal nursery for habitat and reproduction of the animal, a home to 24 species of fish, 21 species of amphibians, 48 species of reptiles, 176 species of birds and 54 species of mammals in Huangshan. There are mainly red-billed leiothrix, rusty laughingthrush, silver pheasant, bear macaque, sika deer, wild goat, black fronted muntjac, serow, clouded leopard and other rare animals.
Mount Huangshan is located in the subtropical monsoon climate zone, and the climate is in vertical change through the high mountain and deep valley. Local topography plays a leading role in the climate, forming a special mountain monsoon climate. With average annual precipitation at the top of the mountain of 2,369.3 mm, the average annual rainy day is 180.6, and the snow cover, gale and fog days are 32.9, 259 and 1118.7 respectively. The average annual temperature is 7.9℃, the highest temperature in summer and the lowest temperature in winter is 27℃ and -22℃ accordingly, and the longest no-rain period is 40 days. The scenic area is densely wooded, with numerous streams and waterfalls, and the air quality keeps Grade I all the year round. The daily average concentration of PM2.5 in the air is 5μg/m3, and the concentration of negative oxygen ions in the air is over 20,000/cm3, which is called natural oxygen bar.
Mount Huangshan, formerly known as Yishan, was named after the overlooked blue-black peak rock. Legend went that the Yellow Emperor Xuanyuan once gathered herbs and alchemy here and became an immortal. Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty believed in taoism, so he changed Yishan mountain into Mount Huangshan in Tianbao 6th year (AD 747). The name of Mount Huangshan has been used ever since. Over one thousand years, a rich culture of the Yellow Emperor has been formed in Mount Huangshan. Xuanyuan Peak, Alchemy Peak, Rongcheng Peak, Fuqiu Peak, Dan Well, Xiyao Creek, Drying Table and other scenic spots are named closely related to the Yellow Emperor.
Mount Huangshan experiences a geological history of 800 million years, integrating grand peak forest landforms, glacier relics, granite modeling stones, granite caverns, spring, pool, creek, waterfall and other rich and typical geological landscape. Front mountain rock mass is characterized by sparse joints, spherical weathering and magnificent shapes; back mountain rock mass has dense joints, columnar weathering and steep body, forming a magnificent; magnificent front mountain, and beautiful back mountain are taken shape.
Location and TransportationMount Huangshan, located in Huangshan City, southern Anhui Province, is about 40 kilometers long from north to south, and 30 kilometers wide from east to west, with a total area of about 1,200 square kilometers.
Among them, Mount Huangshan Scenic Area covers an area of 160.6 square kilometers, spans 118°01'-118° 17'E, 30°01'-30°18' N. It starts from Huangshi in the east, reaches Xiaolingjiao in the west, begins from Erlong Bridge in the north, and reaches Tangkou Town in the south, falling into nine management areas, namely Wenquan, Yungu, Yuping, Beihai, Songgu, Diaoqiao, Fuxi, Yanghu and Fugu.
The buffer zone covers an area of 490.9 square kilometers and is bounded by the administrative boundaries of five towns and one farm (Tangkou Town of Huangshan District, Tanjiaqiao Town, Sankou Town, Gengcheng Town, Jiaocun Town and Yanghu Forest Farm) in Huangshan District.
Historical DevelopmentHistorical Development
Religious Development Period in Late Ming and Early Qing Dynasties: in the 34th year of Wanli Reign in the Ming Dynasty (1606), Buddhist monk Pumen came to the mountain and founded the Fahai Buddhist Temple, which was later granted by Emperor Wanli as Huguo Ciguang Temple. Thereafter, Manjusri Monastery was built in front of Yuping Peak and Merciful Monastery in Guangming Peak. With the help of Pan Zhiheng, etc., four simple mountaineering paths, from Hot Spring to Tianhai on the south road, from Songgu to Tianhai on the north road, from Kuzhu Creek to Beihai on the east road, and from Xiangqiao Temple to Hot Spring on the west road, have initially taken shape, making the construction of scenic spots centered on Cuiwei Temple, Xiangfu Temple, Ciguang Temple and the Four Jungles of Zhibo Buddhist Temple take on a definite scale. Afterwards, monks from all over the world came to the mountains to build monasteries and knot tall grass, or to visit Buddhist monks with withered lanterns, or to search for strange peaks for paintings. This was the peak period of incense in Mount Huangshan temples. In the Qing Dynasty, footpaths and houses were mainly renovated but with little construction. At the end of Qing Dynasty and the beginning of Republic of China, many temples were destroyed because of poor incense and disrepair.
During the meeting, Xu Zhihong, Chairman of the Chinese National Committee for Man and the Biosphere Program; Zhang Yaping, Vice President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences; Wang Ding, Secretary-general of the Chinese National Committee for Man and the Biosphere Programme; and a team of experts and representatives attending the meeting visited the Mount Huangshan Exhibition Zone.
The conference was sponsored by the Chinese National Committee for Man and the Biosphere Programme, hosted by Xinhua Co., Ltd., and attended by leading comrades of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, the National Forestry and Grassland Administration, and the National Commission for UNESCO.
Mount Huangshan has been selected as the World Biosphere Reserve, which is the first time for China to join the World Network of Biosphere Reserve, and provides an example for the integration and mutual learning between China's scenic spots and biosphere reserves. As a scenic area, Mount Huangshan can be selected as the World Biosphere Reserve, indicating that Mount Huangshan is of great value in aesthetic appreciation, and historic culture, as well as ecology and science
Water lifting to the mountain and zoning supply water projects have been planned, creating the highest lift in China (741 meters). Mount Huangshan first built high-mountain fire prevention water network in mountain-type scenic spots domestically, with the total length of the mountain pipe network of 13.9 km, every 100 meters setting up a fire hydrant, a total of 120 fire hydrants. At present, it has fully covered the main attractions and walkways in Beihai, Xihai, Tianhai, Yuping and other core scenic spots
With a 4km wide and 100km long non-pine forest belt around Mount Huangshan constructed, the three lines of defense implemented and inspection and quarantine strengthened, it has better prevented pine wood nematode disease from introducing to the scenic area.
With clean items allowed only climbing the hill, coming down the hill after cleaning, unified sewage management, and standard discharge, national demonstration zone, national low-carbon tourism demonstration zone, and national ecotourism demonstration zone meeting ISO14000 Standard have finalized.
Ancient and famous tree protection archives have been established with one tree corresponding to one plan, and hierarchical management and listing protection also carried forward. The welcome pine and black tiger pine shall be guarded and monitored by special personnel. The forestry health chief expert system is established, so as to carry on the health examination to the ancient and famous tree regularly, and implement the rejuvenation protection measure. Annual report on conservation of welcome pine is prepared.
Mount Huangshan has invented closed rotation system of scenic spots, successfully transplanted disturbing dragon pine, and reproduced the unique scenery of dreamy brushwork.
Relevant actions have been taken to implement unified transfer, relocate facilities, improve the environment, take the lead in monitoring PM2.5 in the national mountain scenic areas and maintain normal release.
Ciguang Pavilion, Pine Valley Temple, Watching Falls Tower and other ancient buildings are repaired, and a comprehensive survey has been done and new cliff stones have been made to establish the Mount Huangshan cultural stele corridor.
It has established Mount Huangshan Cultural Development Center, Visitor Center, Geological Museum and other cultural exchanges, exhibition institutions. It published Mount Huangshan Cliff Stone Carving, Chanting Mount Huangshan of the Past Generation of Celebrities, Painting Mount Huangshan of the Past Generation of Celebrities, Writing Mount Huangshan of the Past Generation of Celebrities, Mount Huangshan World Cultural Heritage (Pavilion Volume), etc.